ANIMATION WORLD MAGAZINE - ISSUE 5.05 - AUGUST 2000
The Aesthetics of Internet Animation
by Chris Lanier
Wildbrain.com features the hit Web cartoon Romanov. See a clip! © Wild Brain, Inc.
The creation of art at the limits of technical innovation is bound to produce a fair share of both epiphanies and headaches. You know you're in deep when you start having difficulties telling the two apart.
I've just completed a three-month run of a cartoon made for the Internet. The weekly 2-3 minute animations were made in Flash; because Flash allows for modem-friendly transmission of graphics, it's moved to become the vanguard of Web animation software. Despite its graphical efficiency, however, there are a number of constraints the Flash animator faces: issues of bandwidth, frame rates and processor speeds. I've tried to treat these obstacles as opportunities, as a spur to creativity.
Every limitation implies its own peculiar liberation. There is a point at which the effects of Shakespeare's sonnets are achieved as a result of, and not despite, the form. Robert Frost famously said that writing free verse was like playing tennis without a net. There's a huge difference between self-imposed aesthetic constraints and technical constraints, but it's an attractive operative metaphor. At times, making Web 'toons has been like playing tennis with a net five stories tall, while using teaspoons for rackets. It makes for invigorating and absurd sport.
Limitations Equal Freedom
The most profound "liberation" effected by the limitations of Web animation is the removal of the burden of spectacle. In the middle of blockbuster season it's impossible to avoid the conclusion that cinematic technology is in a headlong rush to overwhelm the senses. The unspoken assumption is that any movie could be improved if, instead of merely hearing and seeing it, we could also feel, smell and taste it. Whether, during a dinner scene, we should be tasting what's on the hero's plate, what's on the love interest's plate, or some combination of the two (problematic if the hero's tucking into his chocolate mousse while the love interest is still dallying with the Salmon fillet), is something best left to the aestheticians of the future's sensoriums. As an audience member, it's hard not to feel like a lab rat with an electrical wire inserted into your brain's pleasure center. Culture has become a pornography of the senses.
The burden of intense sensory engagement is lifted simply because, for now, on the Web, it's technically unattainable. It's a strange "cutting edge" that looks like a throwback to other, older technologies where "cutting edge" animation looks like sub-par Jay Ward-era Rocky and Bullwinkle (or reaching even further back, Colonel Bleep). For now, it is novelty enough to find movement in your Web browser, it needn't be particularly smooth or robust. This has the immediate effect of lowering the budget for animations; they can be done quickly and cheaply, because they can be done crudely. This removes the layers of bureaucracy that traditional animation has had to contend with, allowing for wider freedom of imagination. It also foregrounds the importance of good writing. And it provides opportunities for subtle effects of imaginative transference.
The Comic Comparison
In this regard it's helpful to think of comics, a communications medium that's thrillingly low-tech. (I actually moved into animation through an interest in comics.) Comics are often considered an orphan form -- the hapless urchin begging at the darkened peripheries of the movie palace. This is to misunderstand profoundly its genius. Few reflect on its efficiency as a visual language: draw 200 pictures in comics and you have a book. In animation, you only have 8 seconds.
There has been much press about comics migration to the Web (some have even touted the Web as the savior of comics), but much of it seems misguided. Yes, the Internet has provided a fertile arena for iconographic and "cartoony" art, as navigation and design elements, but these are artifacts of style, not coherent effects of a medium. In fact, as the display of these cartoonish drawings tends to be temporal, and not spatial, they're no longer comics: they've been cannibalized for animation. The driving notion behind this is the same one that drives cinematic spectacle: the comic would improve if sensory information were added to it, namely motion and sound. It's considered an improvement that we actually hear a gun going off, rather than reading the word "bang," and that all of these fantastic characters can speak in their own voices. But to date, this alchemy has not produced any better comics, just stilted animation.
A comic emits no sound, but it is not truly silent: when you read it, you hear the voices and sound effects, and see the action paced to your own rhythms. The story takes place inside your head and is more "real" because of it. For example, you don't have to worry about bad voice acting throwing a scene off as the characters aren't actors, but projections of your own psyche. Animation takes place on a screen, entirely outside of you; comics starts on the page, but it ultimately "occurs" half outside you, on the page, and half inside, in your mind.
In short, the technical "additions" to comics are actually subtractions of imaginative involvement. Comics are a profoundly collaborative medium. It draws you into an imagined world through the efficacy of "closure." It presents you with a series of discreet images or "moments," and you must piece them together in a narrative flow.
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